C-9 Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines Injection Actuation Pressure - Test Caterpillar


Injection Actuation Pressure - Test
`
C-9 Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines [RENR2391]
FUEL SYSTEM
PUMP GP-UNIT INJECTOR HYD
C-9 Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines Injection Actuation Pressure - Test

System Operation Description:

Use the steps that follow to check the operation of fuel systems that utilize Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors (HEUI). Circle the appropriate answer in the "Results" section of each step. Complete the pages. Return the pages with any of the requested parts through the part return system.

Note: There are two possible locations for the injection actuation pressure sensor. Refer to Illustrations 1 and 2.




Illustration 1g01161363

Left side engine view (typical example)

(1) J500/P500 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (IAPCV) connector

(2) Injection Actuation Pressure (IAP) sensor

(3) J2/P2 Engine Control Module (ECM) connector




Illustration 2g01157054

Left side engine view (typical example)

(1) J500/P500 Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve (IAPCV) connector

(2) Injection Actuation Pressure (IAP) sensor

(3) J2/P2 Engine Control Module (ECM) connector

Test Step 1. Symptoms

The following symptoms may occur if there is a problem with the HEUI fuel system:

  • The engine cranks but the engine will not start.

  • The engine runs rough.

  • The engine is erratic or unstable at idle or running.

  • Low power

  • The following fault codes might be currently active codes or logged event codes: 164-00, 164-02 and 164-11.

Complete the following test steps. Circle the appropriate answers in the "Results" section of each test step and return the pages with the fuel system component.

  1. Connect the AVSpare Electronic Technician (ET) to the service tool connector.

  1. Restore the electrical power to the ECM. DO NOT START THE ENGINE.

  1. Print the "Lifetime Totals" and the "Configuration" screen.

  1. Check for active diagnostic codes.

Expected Result:

There are no active diagnostic codes with the electrical power restored to the ECM and the engine OFF.

Results:

  • OK - There are no active codes. Proceed to Test Step 2.

  • Not OK - Active codes are present.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Engine Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test" if 164-03 or 164-04 is active.Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor - Test" if 164-02 is active.Contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) if 164-00 or 164-11 is active.

    STOP

Test Step 2. Check the Engine Oil Level

  1. Check the engine oil level.

  1. If the engine oil level is low add oil to the engine.

  1. Try to start the engine.

Expected Result:

The engine starts.

Results:

  • Yes - The engine starts. Proceed to Test Step 7.

  • No - The engine does not start. Proceed to Test Step 3.

Test Step 3. The Engine Cranks but the Engine Will Not Start

Your answer from the previous step indicated that the engine oil level is within specifications. Do not replace the injection actuation pressure sensor at this time.

  1. Crank the engine. Observe the status for "Injection Actuation Pressure" and "Engine Speed" on Cat ET while the engine is cranking. Record the following data:

    ________ Desired injection actuation pressure

    ________ Actual injection actuation pressure

    ________ Observed engine speed

    ________ Engine coolant temperature

    ________ Observed "Injection Actuation Output Percent"

Expected Result:

The desired injection actuation pressure and the actual injection actuation pressure are within 1 MPa (145 psi).

Results:

  • OK - The desired injection actuation pressure and the actual injection actuation pressure are within 1 MPa (145 psi).

    Repair: The HEUI fuel system is functioning correctly. Refer to troubleshooting without a diagnostic code Troubleshooting, "Engine Cranks but Will Not Start".

    STOP

  • Not OK - The desired injection actuation pressure and the actual injection actuation pressure are not within 1 MPa (145 psi). Proceed to Test Step 4.

Test Step 4. Use a Test Lamp to Check for the Presence of Current

  1. Disconnect the J500/P500 IAPCV connector from the unit injector hydraulic pump.

    Note: Do not insert any wire that is larger than 18 AWG into the P500 harness connector. Do not insert the probe for the voltage test lamp into the P500 harness connector. These actions will spread the sockets of the connector which will damage the connector. Damaged connectors could cause intermittent connections.

  1. Insert a 186-3735 Connector Pin into each of the harness connector sockets at connector P500.

  1. Connect a voltage test lamp to the connector pins that are inserted in the P500 connector.

  1. Crank the engine and watch the test lamp.

Expected Result:

The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking.

Results:

  • OK - The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking. The ECM is operating correctly and the wiring harness to the pump is probably OK. Proceed to Test Step 5.

  • Not OK - The test lamp does not illuminate while the engine is cranking.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test".

    STOP

Test Step 5. Check the Oil Pressure at the Pump (Deadhead Test)

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of injury.

    Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

    ----------------------

  1. Disconnect the high pressure oil line from the unit injector hydraulic pump. Install a 8T-0852 Pressure Gauge onto the outlet port of the pump.

    Note: Ensure that the pump is supplying oil only to the gauge.

    Note: The pressure readings may vary between gauges.

  1. Install a 224-9282 Adapter Cable As at the J500/P500 connectors. Connect one end of the adapter cable to the IAPCV and connect the other end to the harness connector.

    Note: There must be a continuous electrical connection between the ECM and the unit injector hydraulic pump. The improper connection or the incomplete connection of the adapter cable may provide incorrect results.

  1. Connect a multimeter that is capable of measuring current that is 0 to 1,000 milliamperes in series with the adapter cable. Select the lowest current range for the multimeter that is greater than one amp.

    Note: If the multimeter is not set to the correct scale, the following measurement may provide misleading results.

  1. Crank the engine and record the following data:

    ________ Observed pressure reading from the pressure gauge

    ________ Observed engine speed from Cat ET

    ________ Observed "Injection Actuation Output Percent" from Cat ET

    ________ Current reading from the ammeter

Expected Result:

The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA.

Results:

  • OK - The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA. Return the system to the original configuration. Proceed to Test Step 6.

  • Not OK, Result 1 - The oil pressure is below 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA.

    Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. If the drive gear on the pump is loose, do not attempt to tighten the drive gear and reuse the pump. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. If the problem remains after the repair, contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC).After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for a significant length of time in order to fill the pump with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the system.

    STOP

  • Not OK, Result 2 - The current is below 400 mA.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test".

    STOP

Test Step 6. Check the High Pressure Oil System for Leaks

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Hot oil and components can cause personal injury.

    Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.

    ----------------------

  1. Remove the valve cover and inspect the high pressure oil system for oil leaks.

  1. While the engine is being cranked, look around the injector bores for any signs of oil leakage. Inspect the spill ports on the injectors for an excessive discharge of oil. All six injectors should spill the same amount of oil.

  1. While the engine is being cranked, perform the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test". Run the test at the highest step in order to maximize any possible leaks.

Expected Result:

No leaks are apparent.

Results:

  • OK - There are no apparent leaks. Contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.STOP

  • Not OK - There are oil leaks.

    Repair: Replace the O-ring on the injector or replace the damaged injector.

    STOP

Test Step 7. Engine Starts

  1. Start the engine.

  1. Check for the following codes on Cat ET:

  • 42-11 Inject Actuation Control Valve open/short

  • 164-00 High Injector Actuation Pressure

  • 164-02 Injector Actuation Pressure signal erratic

  • 164-11 Injector Actuation Pressure system fault

Expected Result:

164-00 or 164-11 is active or logged.

Place a check beside the codes that are active or logged.

  • ________ 42-11

  • ________ 164-00

  • ________ 164-02

  • ________ 164-11

Results:

  • 164-00 or 164-11 is active or logged - 164-00 or 164-11 is active or logged. 164-02 or 42-11 may also be active or logged. Proceed to Test Step 8.

  • 164-02 is active or logged - 164-02 is active or logged, but 164-00 and 164-11 are not active or logged.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Sensor - Test" for information on troubleshooting the active 164-02 code.

    STOP

Test Step 8. Evaluate the Quality of the Oil

Extended oil drain intervals may cause elevated levels of soot in the engine oil. The elevated levels of soot may also deplete the additive package of the oil. This can affect the operation of the high pressure oil system.

Record the current drain interval.

________ Machine model

________ Engine serial number

________ Drain interval

________ Hours since last oil change

Expected Result:

The customer has not exceeded the suggested oil change interval and an oil change does not need to be performed.

Results:

  • OK - The customer has not exceeded the suggested oil change interval. Proceed to Test Step 9.

  • Not OK - The customer has exceeded the suggested oil change interval.

    Repair: Before you proceed, ask the customer to authorize an oil change with a new oil filter. Oil changes are not covered by the warranty. After the engine oil and the oil filter have been changed, operate the engine until normal operating temperature has been reached. Run the engine up and down through the operating rpm range for 10 to 15 minutes. This will purge any trapped air or debris that is in the system.

    If the problem persists, or if the problem recurs in a short period or time, proceed to Test Step 9.

Test Step 9. Check the System with the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test"

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of injury.

    Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

    ----------------------

  1. Remove the plug from the secondary outlet port on the unit injector hydraulic pump.

  1. Install a 8T-0852 Pressure Gauge in the secondary outlet port.

  1. Start the engine.

  1. Access the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test" in the "Diagnostics Menu" of Cat ET and begin the test.

    Note: The "Injection Actuation Pressure Test" can increase the injection actuation pressure or the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test" can decrease the injection actuation pressure. The test adjusts the oil pressure in steps.

  1. Record the pressure readings from the pressure gauge and from Cat ET.

    Table 1
    Step     Manual Pressure gauge     Cat ET     Difference    
    1                
    2                
    3                
    4                

  1. Remove the gauge from the unit injector hydraulic pump. Install the plug into the secondary outlet port. Tighten the plug to a torque of 34 ± 3 N·m (25 ± 2 lb ft).

Expected Result:

The pressure that was measured with the pressure gauge for each step and the pressure that was displayed on Cat ET for each step are within 1379 kPa (200 psi).

Note: Under some situations, the injection actuation pressure may not change. Use this step to compare the pressure reading from the pressure gauge to the pressure reading that is displayed on Cat ET.

Results:

  • OK - The pressures are within 1379 kPa (200 psi). The injection actuation pressure sensor is operating properly. Do not replace the sensor. Proceed to Test Step 10.

  • Not OK - The pressures are not within 1379 kPa (200 psi). The injection actuation pressure sensor may be faulty. Replace the sensor and repeat this test step. If the problem persists, verify the accuracy of the pressure gauge. Install the original sensor onto the engine and proceed to Test Step 10.

Test Step 10. Use a Test Lamp to Check for the Presence of Current

  1. Disconnect J500/P500 IAPCV connector from the unit injector hydraulic pump.

    Note: Do not insert any wire that is larger than 18 AWG into the P500 harness connector. Do not insert the probe for the voltage test lamp into the P500 harness connector. These actions will spread the sockets of the connector which will damage the connector. Damaged connectors could cause intermittent connections.

  1. Insert a 186-3735 Connector Pin into each of the P500 harness connector sockets.

  1. Connect a voltage test lamp to the connector pins that are inserted in the P500 connector.

  1. Crank the engine and watch the test lamp.

Expected Result:

The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking.

Results:

  • OK - The test lamp illuminates while the engine is cranking. The ECM is operating correctly and the wiring harness to the pump is probably OK. Proceed to Test Step 11.

  • Not OK - The test lamp does not illuminate while the engine is cranking.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test".

    STOP

Test Step 11. Perform the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test" at Low Idle and at High Idle

Start the engine. Run the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test" at low idle and at high idle.

Note: There should not be any noticeable lag in the reaction to the injection pressure. The pressure changes should be instantaneous.

Record the data in the following tables:

Table 2
Low Idle    
Step     Actual injection actuation pressure from Cat ET     Desired injection actuation pressure from Cat ET    
1            
2            
3            
4            

Table 3
High Idle    
Step     Actual injection actuation pressure from Cat ET     Desired injection actuation pressure from Cat ET    
1            
2            
3            
4            

Expected Result:

The actual injection actuation pressure for each step and the desired injection actuation pressure for each step are within 1379 kPa (200 psi).

Note: Under some situations, the injection actuation pressure may not change. Use this step to compare the pressure from the pressure gauge to the pressure that is displayed by Cat ET.

Results:

  • OK - The actual injection actuation pressure and the desired injection actuation pressure are within 1379 kPa (200 psi).

    Repair: Contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.

    STOP

  • Not OK - The actual injection actuation pressure and the desired injection actuation pressure are not within 1379 kPa (200 psi). Proceed to Test Step 12.

Test Step 12. Check the Oil Pressure at the Pump (Deadhead Test)

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size leak, can penetrate body tissue, causing serious injury, and possible death. If fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of injury.

    Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

    ----------------------

  1. Disconnect the high pressure oil line from the unit injector hydraulic pump. Install a 8T-0852 Pressure Gauge onto the outlet port of the pump.

    Note: Ensure that the pump is supplying oil only to the gauge.

    Note: The pressure readings may vary between gauges.

  1. Install a 224-9282 Adapter Cable As at the J500/P500 connectors. Connect one end of the adapter cable to the IAPCV and connect the other end to the harness connector.

    Note: There must be a continuous electrical connection between the ECM and the unit injector hydraulic pump. The improper connection or the incomplete connection of the adapter cable may provide incorrect results.

  1. Connect a multimeter that is capable of measuring current that is 0 to 1,000 milliampere in series with the adapter cable. Select the lowest current range for the multimeter that is greater than one amp.

    Note: If the multimeter is not set to the correct scale, the following measurement may provide misleading results.

  1. Crank the engine and record the following data:

    ________ Observed pressure reading from the pressure gauge

    ________ Observed engine speed from Cat ET

    ________ Observed "Injection Actuation Output Percent" from Cat ET

    ________ Current reading from the ammeter

Expected Result:

The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3843 psi) and the current is above 400 mA.

Results:

  • OK - The oil pressure is above 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA. Remove the adapter cable from the circuit. Leave the pressure gauge installed on the pump. Proceed to Test Step 13.

  • Not OK - Result 1 - The oil pressure is below 26.5 MPa (3840 psi) and the current is above 400 mA.

    Repair: Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. If the drive gear on the pump is loose, do not attempt to tighten the drive gear and reuse the pump. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. If the problem remains after the repair, contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for a significant length of time in order to fill the pump with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the system.

    STOP

  • Not OK - Result 2 - The current is below 400 mA.

    Repair: Refer to diagnostic functional tests Troubleshooting, "Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve Circuit - Test".

    STOP

Test Step 13. Disconnect J500/P500 Connector and Check the Oil Pressure

  1. Disconnect the J500/P500 connector at the unit injector hydraulic pump.

  1. Crank the engine and record the oil pressure.

Note: The pressure readings may vary between gauges.

________ Observed pressure reading from the pressure gauge

________ Observed engine speed from Cat ET

________ Observed "Injection Actuation Output Percent" from Cat ET

Expected Result:

The oil pressure is below 8 MPa (1160 psi).

Results:

  • OK - The pressure reading is below 8 MPa (1160 psi). The unit injector hydraulic pump is working properly. Proceed to Test Step 14.

  • No - The unit injector hydraulic pump is faulty.

    Repair: The unit injector hydraulic pump is faulty. Replace the unit injector hydraulic pump. Verify that the repair eliminates the problem. If the problem remains after the repair, contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.After the unit injector hydraulic pump has been replaced, the engine may need to be cranked for a significant length of time in order to fill the pump with oil. Clear any diagnostic codes or event codes that activated during the initial start-up. Retest the system.

    STOP

Test Step 14. Check the High Pressure Oil System for Leaks

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Hot oil and components can cause personal injury.

    Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.

    ----------------------

  1. Remove the valve cover and inspect the high pressure oil system for oil leaks.

  1. While the engine is being cranked, look around the injector bores for any signs of oil leakage. Inspect the spill ports on the injectors for an excessive discharge of oil. All six injectors should spill the same amount of oil.

  1. While the engine is being cranked, perform the "Injection Actuation Pressure Test". Run the test at the highest step in order to maximize any possible leaks.

Expected Result:

No leaks are apparent.

Results:

  • OK - There are no apparent leaks. Contact your Engine Technical Communicator (TC) for assistance.STOP

  • Not OK - There are oil leaks.

    Repair: Replace the O-ring on the injector or replace the damaged injector. Verify that the repair eliminates the original problem.

    STOP

Information System:

938G Series II Wheel Loader and IT38G Series II Integrated Toolcarrier Hydraulic System Kickout System - Integrated Toolcarrier
2002/11/18 A New Hardened Hub and A New Hardened Adjusting Ring Are Used in Final Drives for Ensuring Wheel Bearing Preload {4051}
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Machine Systems Location of Electrical Components
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Machine Systems Features
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Machine Systems Electrical System
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Vibratory System Vibratory Electrical System
R2900 Load Haul Dump Engine Oil and Filter - Change
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Vibratory System Location of Electrical Components
R2900 Load Haul Dump Engine Oil Level - Check
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Propel System Propel Electrical System
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Propel System Location of Electrical Components
R2900 Load Haul Dump Engine Air Filter Secondary Element - Replace
D250E and D300E Articulated Trucks Power Train Output Transfer Gear Group
AP-655C and BG-2255C Asphalt Pavers Attachments Washdown System
2002/10/21 A New Dust Ejector Group for the Exhaust is Now Available {1068}
CP-563E, CP-573E, CS-563E, CS-573E and CS-583E Vibratory Soil Compactors Machine Systems Location of Hydraulic Components
R2900 Load Haul Dump Fuel System - Prime
R2900 Load Haul Dump Fuel System Primary Filter - Clean/Replace
Installation Instructions for Improved 317-2428 Steering Valve Gp {4307}
3524B Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines Engine Oil Scavenge Pump - Remove
2002/11/04 A New Water Aftercooler Group Is Used {1063}
3524B Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines Engine Oil Scavenge Pump - Install
938G Series II Wheel Loader and IT38G Series II Integrated Toolcarrier Hydraulic System Hydraulic Fan System
938G Series II Wheel Loader and IT38G Series II Integrated Toolcarrier Braking System Vane Pump (Braking)