Perform a visual inspection of the cooling system before a test is made with test equipment.
- Check the coolant level in the cooling system. Add coolant, if necessary.
If the coolant level is too low, air will get into the cooling system. Air in the cooling system reduces coolant flow. Air creates bubbles that contribute to cavitation. Bubbles in the coolant also reduce the cooling capability.
- Check the quality of the coolant. The coolant should have the following properties:
- Color that is similar to new coolant
- Odor that is similar to new coolant
- Free from contamination
- Properties that are recommended by the engine's Operation and Maintenance Manual
If the coolant does not have these properties, drain the system and flush the system. Refill the cooling system according to the engine's Operation and Maintenance Manual.
- Check for air in the cooling system. Air can enter the cooling system in different ways. The following conditions cause air in the cooling system:
- Filling the cooling system incorrectly
- Combustion gas leakage into the cooling system
Combustion gas can get into the system through the following conditions: internal cracks, damaged cylinder head and damaged cylinder head gasket.
- Inspect the radiator (if equipped) and the air-to-air aftercooler (if equipped). Make sure that the air flow is not restricted. Look for the following conditions. Make corrections, if necessary:
- Bent fins
- Debris between the folded cores
- Damaged fan blades
- Check the heat exchanger (if equipped) for internal blockage. Make sure that the filters for the water are not clogged.
The condition of the water that is circulated through the heat exchanger can decrease the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. Operating with water that contains the following types of debris will adversely affect the heat exchanger system: silt, sediment, salt and algae. In addition, intermittent use of the engine will adversely affect the heat exchanger system.
- Check the pressure cap.
If the pressure cap does not maintain the correct pressure on the cooling system, the engine could overheat. A decrease in cooling system pressure reduces the temperature of the water's boiling point.
- Inspect the cooling system hoses and clamps.
Damaged hoses with leaks can normally be seen. Hoses that have no visual leaks can soften during operation. The soft areas of the hose can become kinked or crushed during operation. These areas of the hose restrict the coolant flow. Hoses can crack after a period of time. The inside of a hose can deteriorate and the loose particles of the hose can restrict the coolant flow.
- Check the water temperature regulators.
A water temperature regulator that does not open or a water temperature regulator that only opens part of the way can cause overheating.
A water temperature regulator that does not close enables overcooling.
- Check the engine water pump and check the auxiliary pump.
Check for a fluid leak from the pump's weep hole during engine operation and check for a leak when the engine is stopped. If either coolant or oil is leaking from the weep hole, replace the pump.
A water pump with a damaged impeller does not pump enough coolant for correct coolant flow. This affects the engine's operating temperature. Remove the water pump and check for damage to the impeller. Also inspect the inside of the pump's housing for scratches from the impeller.
- Check the aftercooler.
A restriction of water flow through the aftercooler can cause overheating. Check for debris or deposits which restrict the free flow of water through the aftercooler.
Personal injury can result from escaping fluid under pressure.
If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator, push the release valve in order to relieve pressure before removing any hose from the radiator.