3054E Industrial Engine Basic Engine Caterpillar


Basic Engine
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1.1. Cylinder Block
2.1. Cylinder Head
3.1. Pistons
4.1. Connecting Rods
5.1. Crankshaft
6.1. Camshaft
7.1. Timing Case and Gears

The basic engine components of the 3054E engine are described in this section.

  • Cylinder block

  • Cylinder head

  • Pistons

  • Connecting rods

  • Crankshaft

  • Camshaft

  • Timing case and gears

Cylinder Block



Illustration 1g01139989
Cylinder block

The cylinder block is made of cast iron with an integral crankcase. The sides of the cylinder block extend below the center line of the crankshaft in order to provide added strength. The cylinder block provides full support for the length of the cylinder bores.

All of the bores are honed with silicon carbide tools to a controlled finish in order to ensure long life and low oil consumption.

The cylinder block has a front camshaft bearing that is installed for the front camshaft journal. The other camshaft journals run directly in the cylinder block.

Cylinder Head



Illustration 2g01139990
Cylinder head

The cast iron cylinder head is fastened to the cylinder block by ten flanged bolts. The cylinder head gasket has a soft outer surface with an inner steel core. The inlet and exhaust ports are designed to improve air flow.

The cylinder head assembly has two overhead valves for each cylinder. Each valve is held in place by a single coil spring, a cap, and two collets. The cylinder head has steel valve seat inserts for both the inlet and exhaust valves. The valves move in steel valve guides. Each valve guide is equipped with a synthetic rubber oil seal. The exhaust valve guides have a counterbore in order to prevent seizure of the valve stem that is caused by a buildup of carbon underneath the head of the valve. Both the valve seat inserts and the valve guides can be renewed.

The overhead valves are operated by a rocker shaft assembly that is installed under a composite valve mechanism cover. The forged steel rocker arms are operated by cold drawn pushrods with hardened heads. The rocker shaft is supported by steel brackets that support the rocker shaft between each pair of valves. The rocker shaft assembly and valve components are lubricated by an oil flow from the hollow rocker shaft. The rocker shaft receives a reduced oil flow from the oil feed of the camshaft.

Valve lash is adjusted by adjustment screws and locknuts at the pushrod end of each rocker arm.

The inlet manifold and the water temperature regulator housing are integral within the cylinder head. The valve mechanism cover also contains the crankcase breather and breather pipe.

Pistons



Illustration 3g01366733
Piston

The pistons have a FASTRAM combustion chamber in the top of the piston. The piston crater ensures an efficient mix of fuel and air.

The pistons have two compression rings and an oil control ring. The groove for the top ring has a hard metal insert that reduces wear of the groove. The piston skirt has a layer of graphite in order to improve the wear characteristics. The fully floating piston pin is held in an axial location by circlips. The piston pin is placed off-center in order to reduce the noise level.

The piston cooling jets spray lubricating oil onto the inner surface of the piston in order to cool the piston.

The piston height is adjustable. The correct piston height is important in order to ensure that the piston does not contact the cylinder head and that the fuel has efficient combustion.

Connecting Rods



Illustration 4g01366735
Connecting rod

The pistons and the connecting rods are matched to each cylinder. The piston height is controlled by the length of the connecting rods. The piston pin bearing in the connecting rod is machined off-center in order to obtain the different length grades. There are six different length grades of connecting rods that are used in order to obtain the correct piston height.



Illustration 5g01139993
Fracture split end of the connecting rod

The connecting rod is a one-piece forging that is fractured hydraulically in order to split the big end cap from the connecting rod. This process produces a rough surface that is accurately matched on each side for improved strength. The rough surface also prevents lateral movement of the mating surfaces.

Crankshaft



Illustration 6g01140006
Crankshaft

The crankshaft is forged from chrome molybdenum steel. The crankshaft has five main journals. The flywheel is attached to the large flange at the rear of the crankshaft.

End play of the crankshaft is controlled by two split 360° thrust washers that are located on both sides of the center main bearing.

The main bearings have steel backs with an aluminum and tin bearing material. The main bearing caps are made of cast iron or spheroidal graphite (SG) iron.

The one-piece rear oil seal is made from a PTFE material. The crankshaft pulley is held in position by a plain thrust block and three bolts.



Illustration 7g01366737
Timing wheel

The timing wheel is an interference fit onto a machined surface of the crankshaft web. The timing wheel is located by a dowel (2) that is behind the rear flange of the crankshaft. The timing wheel has space for 36 teeth with one missing tooth (1) that is located 70 degrees after top center.

Camshaft



Illustration 8g01140018
Camshaft

The engine has a single camshaft that is made of cast iron. The camshaft has four sets of lobes. Each set of lobes controls the movement of the inlet and exhaust valves for each cylinder.

The camshaft is driven at the front end by the camshaft gear. As the camshaft rotates, the camshaft lobes move the valve system components. The valve system components move the cylinder valves.

The camshaft gear must be timed to the crankshaft gear. The relationship between the lobes of the camshaft and the camshaft gear causes the valves in each cylinder to open at the correct time.

Timing Case and Gears



Illustration 9g01140020
Timing case and gears
(1) Fuel injection pump gear
(2) Camshaft gear
(3) Upper idler gear

The timing case is constructed of either aluminum or cast iron. The cast iron timing case is used to mount two power take-off assemblies. The aluminum timing case cover contains the front oil seal.

The timing gears are made of steel. There are two different types of steel camshaft gear and upper idler gear. A power take-off assembly can be mounted on the left side, the right side, or both sides of the timing case. Some engines have an idler gear with a roller bearing.

The crankshaft gear drives an upper idler gear (3) and a lower idler gear. The upper idler gear drives the camshaft gear (2) and the fuel injection pump gear (1). The gear for the water pump is driven by the fuel injection pump gear. The lower idler gear drives the oil pump or the balancer unit.

The camshaft and the fuel injection pump run at half the speed of the crankshaft.

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