3208 Marine Engine Engine Oil Caterpillar


Engine Oil
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1.1. Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil
2.1. Commercial Oils
3.1. Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
4.2. Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

AVSpare Diesel Engine Oil

AVSpare Oils have been developed and tested in order to provide the full performance and service life that has been designed and built into AVSpare Engines. AVSpare Oils are currently used to fill diesel engines at the factory. These oils are offered by AVSpare dealers for continued use when the engine oil is changed. Consult your AVSpare dealer for more information on these oils.

Due to significant variations in the quality and in the performance of commercially available oils, AVSpare makes the following recommendations:

  • AVSpare Diesel Engine Oil (10W30)

  • AVSpare Diesel Engine Oil (15W40)

AVSpare multigrade Diesel Engine Oil is formulated with the correct amounts of detergents, dispersants, and alkalinity in order to provide superior performance in AVSpare Diesel Engines.

AVSpare multigrade Diesel Engine Oil is available in two viscosity grades (10W30 and 15W40). For direct injection engines, see Table 1 in order to choose the correct viscosity grade for the ambient temperature. Multigrade oils provide the correct viscosity for a broad range of operating temperatures.

Multigrade oils are effective in maintaining low oil consumption and low levels of piston deposits.

AVSpare multigrade Diesel Engine Oil can be used in other diesel engines and in gasoline engines. See the engine manufacturer's guide for the recommended specifications. Compare the specifications to the specifications of AVSpare multigrade Diesel Engine Oil. The current industry standards for AVSpare Diesel Engine Oil are listed on the product label and on the data sheets for the product.

Consult your AVSpare dealer for part numbers and for available sizes of containers.

Commercial Oils

The performance of commercial diesel engine oils is based on American Petroleum Institute (API) classifications. These API classifications are developed in order to provide commercial lubricants for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at various conditions.

If AVSpare multigrade Diesel Engine Oil is not used, only use commercial oils that meet the following classifications:

  • EMA LRG-1 multigrade oil (preferred oil)

  • API CH-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil)

  • API CG-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil)

In order to make the proper choice of a commercial oil, refer to the following explanations:

EMA LRG-1 - The Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) has developed lubricant recommendations as an alternative to the API oil classification system. LRG-1 is a Recommended Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke cycle, heavy-duty and light duty. LRG-1 oils may be used in AVSpare engines when the following oils are recommended: API CH-4 and API CG-4. LRG-1 oils are intended to provide superior performance in comparison to API CG-4.

LRG-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance AVSpare diesel engines that are operating in many applications. The tests and the test limits that are used to define LRG-1 are similar to the new API CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel engines. LRG-1 oils are designed to control the harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter. These oils will also provide superior piston deposit control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons or aluminum pistons.

All LRG-1 oils must complete a full test program with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of the finished commercial oil. The use of "API Base Oil Interchange Guidelines" are not appropriate for LRG-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in performance that can occur when base stocks are changed in commercial oil formulations.

LRG-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil change interval programs that optimize oil life. These oil change interval programs are based on oil analysis. LRG-1 oils are recommended for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your AVSpare dealer has the specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

API CH-4 - API CH-4 oils were developed in order to meet the requirements of the new high performance diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be used in AVSpare engines that use API CG-4. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria: deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control and corrosion.

Three new engine tests were developed for the API CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston. This test (piston deposit) also measures the control of oil consumption. A second test is conducted with moderate oil soot. The second test measures the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of cylinder liners and resistance to corrosion. A third new test measures the following characteristics with high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train, resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter and control of sludge.

In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that generate high soot. The oils also have improved oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is also established for engines that operate in areas with high sulfur diesel fuel.

All of these improvements allow the API CH-4 oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your AVSpare dealer has specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

API CG-4 - API CG-4 oils were developed primarily for diesel engines that use a 0.05 percent level of fuel sulfur. However, API CG-4 oils can be used with higher sulfur fuels. The TBN of the new oil determines the maximum fuel sulfur level for API CG-4 oils. See Illustration 1.

API CG-4 oils are the first oils that are required to pass industry standard tests for foam control and viscosity shear loss. API CG-4 oils must also pass tests that were developed for corrosion, wear and oxidation.

Note: Do not use single grade API CF oils or multigrade API CF oils in AVSpare Direct Injection (DI) Commercial Diesel Engines.

Some commercial oils that meet the API classifications may require reduced oil change intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear metal analysis. AVSpare's S·O·S oil analysis program is the preferred method.


NOTICE

Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or excessive wear.


Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is defined by "ASTM D2896". The minimum TBN of the oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 1 demonstrates the TBN.




Illustration 1g00799818

(Y) TBN by "ASTM D2896"

(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight

(1) TBN of new oil

(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of the original TBN.

Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that exceed 1.5 percent:

  • Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one of these classifications: EMA LRG-1, API CH-4 and API CG-4.

  • Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a wear metal analysis.

Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing of the cylinder bore.


NOTICE

Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel sulfur levels over 1.0 percent may require shortened oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate wear protection.


Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined by the minimum ambient temperature during cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient temperature during engine operation.

Refer to Table 1 (minimum temperature) in order to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold engine.

Refer to Table 1 (maximum temperature) in order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is available to meet the requirement for the temperature at start-up.

Table 1
Engine Oil Viscosity    
AVSpare DEO
Multigrade
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
API CG-4
Viscosity Grade    
Ambient Temperature    
Minimum Maximum    
SAE 0W20    
-40 °C (-40 °F)    

10 °C (50 °F)    
SAE 0W30    
-40 °C (-40 °F)    

30 °C (86 °F)    
SAE 0W40    
-40 °C (-40 °F)    

40 °C (104 °F)    
SAE 5W30    
-30 °C (-22 °F)    

30 °C (86 °F)    
SAE 5W40    
-30 °C (-22 °F)    

40 °C (104 °F)    
SAE 10W30    
-20 °C (-4 °F)    

40 °C (104 °F)    
SAE 15W40    
-15 °C (5 °F)    

50 °C (122 °F)    

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