Challenger 35, Challenger 45 and Challenger 55 Agricultural Tractors General Coolant Information Caterpillar


General Coolant Information
`
1.1. Water
2.1. Additives
3.1. Glycol

Many engine failures are related to the cooling system. Cooling system failures include the following problems: overheating, leakage of the water pump, plugged radiators and cylinder liner pitting. These failures could be avoided with proper cooling system maintenance. Maintenance of the engine coolant is important to the engine life and to the performance. This maintenance is as important as fuel quality. This maintenance is as important as the maintenance of the system for lubricating oil.

Coolant is normally composed of three elements:

  • Water

  • Additives

  • Glycol

Water


NOTICE

Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA's) or inhibited coolant. Water alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures and does not provide adequate boil protection.


Distilled water or deionized water is recommended for use in cooling systems. Do not use hard tap water or salt softened tap water in engine cooling systems. If distilled water or deionized water is not available, use water that meets the minimum requirements that are listed in the following table.

Table 1
AVSpare Recommended Water Quality Limits    
Water Property     PPM
mg per liter
Max    
grains/US gal Max    
Chloride (1) (Cl)     40     2.4    
Sulfate (2) (SO4)     100     5.9    
Total Water Hardness (3)     170     10    
Total Solids (4)     340     20    
Acidity (5)     5.5 pH to 9.0 pH    
( 1 ) See "ASTM D512b", "ASTM D512d" or"ASTM D4327".
( 2 ) See "ASTM D516b"or "ASTM D516d".
( 3 ) See "ASTM D1126".
( 4 ) See "ASTM D1888a".
( 5 ) See "ASTM D1293".

For a water analysis, consult one of the following organizations:

  • The AVSpare Laboratory for an S·O·S Analysis

  • The LOCC Corporation

  • Local water department

  • Agricultural agent

  • Independent laboratory

Additives

Coolant additives help in the following ways:

  • Preventing rust from forming

  • Preventing scale and mineral deposits from forming

  • Protecting metals from corroding

  • Preventing cavitation of the liner

  • Preventing coolant from foaming

Many additives are depleted during engine operation and these additives need to be replaced. This can be done through the addition of Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCA) to Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) or by adding Extender to Extended Life Coolant (ELC).

Additives must be added at the proper concentration. Overconcentration of additives can cause the inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. This can cause a gel compound to form in the radiator. An overconcentration of additives can produce deposits on water pump seals that can cause water pump seal leakage. A low concentration of additives can produce the following problems:

  • Pitting

  • Cavitation erosion

  • Rust

  • Scale

  • Foaming

Glycol

Glycol in the coolant provides anti-boil protection and freeze protection. Glycol in the coolant prevents water pump cavitation. Glycol in the coolant also reduces cylinder liner pitting. For optimum performance, AVSpare recommends a solution that contains a 1:1 mixture of water and of glycol.

Note: AVSpare engines with air-to-air aftercooling require a minimum of 30 percent glycol in order to prevent water pump cavitation.

Most conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreezes use ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used. In a mixture that is 50 percent water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol have similar properties that are relative to the following elements: heat transfer, freeze protection, control of corrosion and compatibility of the seal. Check the glycol level of the coolant system with the 1U-7298 Coolant Tester Group (°C) or with the 1U-7297 Coolant Tester Group (°F). Tables 2 and 3 define the freeze protection for ethylene glycol and for propylene glycol.

Table 2
Ethylene Glycol    
Concentration     Freeze Protection     Anti-Boil Protection    
50 Percent    
-36°C (-33°F)    

106°C (223°F)    
60 Percent    
-51°C (-60°F)    

111°C (232°F)    

Table 3
Propylene Glycol    
Concentration     Freeze Protection     Anti-Boil Protection    
50 Percent    
-29°C (-20°F)    

106°C (223°F)    


NOTICE

Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol's reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol in conditions that require additional freeze or anti-boil protection.


Information System:

631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Fuel Recommendations
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers S·O·S Services Oil Analysis
D6M Track-Type Tractor Lubricant Viscosities
Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations Cold Weather Lubricants
12H, 140H, 143H, 160H and 163H Motor Graders Power Train Transmission
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Specialty Lubricants
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Lubricating Grease
Challenger 35, Challenger 45 and Challenger 55 Agricultural Tractors Multipurpose Tractor Oil
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Gear Oil
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Transmission/Drive Train Oil
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Hydraulic Oil
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Engine Oil - Cat Machine Diesel Engines
631E Series II Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Coolant Recommendations
Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations Extended Life Coolant Cooling System Maintenance
3208 Marine Engine S·O·S Coolant Analysis
Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations Reference Material
12H, 140H, 143H, 160H and 163H Motor Graders Power Train Clutch Control (Modulation)
12H, 140H, 143H, 160H and 163H Motor Graders Power Train Final Drive
12H, 140H, 143H, 160H and 163H Motor Graders Power Train Transmission Control Valve
12H, 140H, 143H, 160H and 163H Motor Graders Power Train Transmission
322B, 322B L, 325B and 325B L Excavators Towing the Machine
322B, 322B L, 325B and 325B L Excavators Lubricant Viscosities - Fluids Recommendations
120H and 135H Motor Graders Tire Inflation with Nitrogen
561M Pipelayer Track Rollers - Single Flange and Double Flange