Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations Cold Weather Lubricants Caterpillar


Cold Weather Lubricants
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1.1. Engine
2.1. Non-Engine Machine Compartments
3.1. Warm-Up Procedures for Machines that are used in Cold Weather (Generic)

Engine


NOTICE

Recommended compartment warm-up procedure must be followed. Refer to the machine Operation and Maintenance Manual. Also refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables footnotes in this Special Publication and to the “Warm-up Procedures for Machines that are used in Cold Weather - (Generic)” topic in this Special Publication.



NOTICE

Excessive engine idling time can contribute to excessive water in the crankcase oil, causing corrosion, sludge, and other problems. Excessive engine idling time can also lead to injector fouling, piston and combustion chamber deposits, corrosive damage, and increased oil consumption.


For proper selection of oil type and/or specification, refer to this Special Publication, "Engine Oil" section. Also, refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables in this Special Publication.

For the proper selection of oil viscosity grade, refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” table in this Special Publication. Also, refer to this Special Publication, "Lubricant Viscosities" article.


NOTICE

Not following the recommendations found in the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables and associated footnotes can lead to reduced performance and engine failure.



NOTICE

Do NOT use only the oil viscosities when determining the recommended oil for an engine compartment. The oil type (performance requirements) MUST also be used.


For easier cold weather starting, make sure that all the components of the engine electrical system are properly maintained. All electrical wiring and connections should be free of the following: fraying, damaged insulation, and corrosion. Batteries should be kept fully charged and warm. The batteries and the battery cables need to be the proper size for the application.

Various starting aids are available to assist with cold engine starts in low temperature conditions. Follow the recommendations that are provided by the manufacturer of the starting aid. Refer to the “Aftermarket Products and Warranty” article in the " Warranty Information" section of this special publication.

Additional information on cold-weather operation is available in Special Publication, SEBU5898, "Cold Weather Recommendations For All AVSpare Equipment". This publication is available from your Cat dealer.

Additionally, for more information on cold-weather operation, refer to this Special Publication, "Fuel Specifications" section. Also refer to this Special Publication, "Cooling System Specifications" (Maintenance Section).

Before attempting to start the engine, make sure that the oil in the engine is fluid enough to flow. Check the oil by removing the dipstick. If the oil will drip from the dipstick, then the oil should be fluid enough to allow the engine to start. Do not use oil that has been diluted with kerosene. Kerosene will evaporate in the engine. Evaporation will cause the oil to thicken. Kerosene will cause swelling and softening of the silicone seals. Kerosene will dilute the oil additives. Dilution of the oil additives will reduce the oil performance, and reduce the engine protection that the additives provide. If your machine is equipped with a gasoline starting engine (earlier machine), make sure that the oil is fluid enough to flow.

If the viscosity of the oil is changed for colder weather, also change the filter element. If the filter is not changed, the filter element and the filter housing can become a solid mass. After you change the oil, operate the engine to circulate the thinner oil.

When you start a cold-soaked engine or when you operate an engine in ambient temperatures that are below −18°C (0°F), use base oils that can flow in low temperatures. These multigrade oils have lubricant viscosity grade of SAE 0W or of SAE 5W. An example of viscosity grade is SAE 5W-40.

When you start a cold-soaked engine or when you operate an engine in ambient temperatures that are below −30°C (−22°F), use a synthetic basestock multigrade oil. The oil should have a lubricant viscosity grade of SAE 0W or SAE 5W. Use an oil with a pour point that is lower than −40°C (−40°F).

Note: Use the highest oil viscosity grade that is allowed for the ambient temperature when you start the engine. If a different oil viscosity grade is specified in “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures”, use the viscosity grade that is specified in the table. In arctic applications, a properly sized engine compartment heater is recommended, and use a higher viscosity grade oil. Refer to the “Lubricant Viscosities” article in this Special Publication for further details.

Note: Cold-soaked starts occur when the engine has not been operated for a time. The oil becomes more viscous due to cooler ambient temperatures. Supplemental heat is recommended for cold-soaked starts that are below the minimum ambient temperatures listed in the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables. Supplemental heat may be required for cold-soaked starts that are above the minimum temperature that is stated, depending on the parasitic load and other factors.


NOTICE

Engines that use fluid or pan heaters, or heated enclosures, or are kept running under load, etc. can, and generally should use higher viscosity oil. The “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables (Maintenance Section) Minimum viscosity for ambient temperature recommendations are for cold-soaked conditions. Use the highest viscosity oil that is allowed for the ambient temperature at startup. BUT, under continuous usage (multiple shifts per day), and/or when using fluid or pan heaters, use a higher viscosity oil than the minumum recommended viscosity for cold-soaked starting conditions. The higher viscosity oil will maintain the highest possible oil film thickness. Refer to the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables and the table footnotes for exceptions.

Example: The oil viscosity recommended for use in Cat diesel engines for cold-soaked starts at −40 °C (−40 °F) is multigrade oil of the SAE 0W viscosity grade (SAE 0W-30). If the diesel engine is run continuously, SAE 15W-40 viscosity grade diesel engine oil can be used and is generally the preferred oil viscosity in this situation.



NOTICE

If ambient conditions warrant, a higher viscosity oil of the recommended specification for a given compartment may need to be installed in order to provide adequate film thickness.


Non-Engine Machine Compartments


NOTICE

Recommended compartment warm-up procedure must be followed. Refer to the machine Operation and Maintenance Manual. Also refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables footnotes in this Special Publication and to the “Warm-up Procedures for Machines that are used in Cold Weather - (Generic)” topic in this Special Publication.


For the proper selection of oil type and/or specification, refer to this Special Publication, "Lubricant Specifications" section. Also, refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables (Oil Type and Specification column) and table footnotes in this Special Publication.

For the proper selection of oil viscosity grade, refer to this Special Publication, "Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures" tables. Also, refer to this Special Publication, "Lubricant Viscosities" article.


NOTICE

Not following the recommendations found in the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables and associated footnotes can lead to reduced performance and compartment failure.


If the viscosity of the oil is changed for colder weather, also change the filter element. If the filter is not changed, the filter element and the filter housing can become a solid mass. After you change the oil, operate the engine to circulate the thinner oil.

Note: Use the highest oil viscosity grade that is allowed for the ambient temperature when you start the machine. If a different oil viscosity grade is specified in the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” table, use the viscosity grade that is specified in the table. In arctic applications, a properly sized engine compartment heater is recommended, and use a higher viscosity grade oil. Refer to the “Lubricant Viscosities” article in this Special Publication for further details.

Note: Cold-soaked starts occur when the machine has not been operated for a time. The oil becomes more viscous due to cooler ambient temperatures.


NOTICE

Machines that use fluid or pan heaters, or heated enclosures, or are kept running under load, etc. can, and generally should use higher viscosity oil. The “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables (Maintenance Section) “Minimum” viscosity for ambient temperature recommendations are for cold-soaked conditions. Use the highest viscosity oil that is allowed for the ambient temperature when you start the machine BUT, under Continuous Usage (Multiple Shifts/Day), and/or when using fluid or pan heaters, etc., use a higher viscosity oil, NOT the oil with the minumum recommended viscosity for cold-soaked starting conditions. The higher viscosity oil will maintain the highest possible oil film thickness. Refer to the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables and the table footnotes for exceptions.



NOTICE

Some machine compartments do not allow the use of SAE 0W, SAE 5W or certain other viscosity grade oils. Refer to the tables for “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” that are in this Special Publication.



NOTICE

If ambient conditions warrant, a higher viscosity oil of the recommended specification/category for a given compartment may need to be installed in order to provide adequate film thickness.



NOTICE

Recommended compartment warm-up procedure must be followed. Refer to the machine Operation and Maintenance Manual. Also refer to the relevant “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” tables footnotes in this Special Publication and to the “Warm-up Procedures for Machines that are used in Cold Weather - (Generic)” topic in this Special Publication.


Warm-Up Procedures for Machines that are used in Cold Weather (Generic)

Note: For recommendations that are specific to your machine, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for your machine.

After the engine is warm, warm up the other systems. Start with the hydraulic system. Run the engine at less than one-third throttle and slowly move the control lever to lift the attachment. Initially, lift the control lever for a few centimeters (inches). Lower the attachment slowly. Continue the following sequence: raising, lowering, extending, and retracting. Extend the travel during each cycle. This operation must be performed for all hydraulic circuits. Alternate between all the attachments.

Exercise the transmission and the power train. If you cannot move the control for the transmission, perform the following steps:

  • Engage the parking brake or apply the parking brake.

  • Run the engine slightly above LOW IDLE.

  • Shift the transmission several times from FIRST GEAR FORWARD to FIRST REVERSE.

Release the brake. Move the equipment forward and backward for several meters (yards). Exercise the machine for several minutes.

To reduce the total warm-up time, start exercising the entire machine before you complete the hydraulic warm-up time.

Operate under a light load until the systems reach normal operating temperatures.

If the engine temperature is not high enough, enclose the engine and block the radiator. A thermostat that opens at a higher temperature will not increase the engine temperature if the engine is not under load.

To prevent seal damage and gasket damage, keep the pipe for the engine crankcase breather clear of blockage.

In extreme conditions, use a canvas over the engine compartment. Heat the engine area with a space heater. Heating will aid in starting the engine. Extending the canvas over the hydraulic components will provide initial warming of the components. Follow all applicable safety guidelines.

Running the engine at low idle will not keep the hydraulic systems warm.

Cold-weather operations require more time for completion than other operations. The extra time that is spent in properly caring for the equipment can prolong the life of the equipment. Extra care is especially helpful in extreme conditions. Longer equipment life will decrease overall cost.

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