Engine lubricants play multiple roles in engines. Appropriate lubricants offer the following:
- Provide lubrication to the moving components of the engine under a wide range of temperatures and pressures
- Keep the engine components clean and remove wear debris
- Remove heat from the lubricated components
- Neutralize acidic products due to combustion process
- Protect the engine from cavitation and foaming
- Protect the engine from corrosion and rust
- Control Oil Consumption
- Disperse/Solubilize Contaminants (soot)
- Support the regulated engine emissions limits
Current lubricant formulations are more advanced and complex than older formulations. Current lubricants are developed to support advanced engine technologies as well as those with lower emissions while supporting the performance and durability of these engines. At the same time, these oils are backwards compatible and protect older engines.
Cat high-performance oils are produced and validated using industry standard tests, internal proprietary tests, field tests, and often prior experience with similar formulations. The American Petroleum Institute (API) categories describe the key industry standards that set the minimum acceptable performance for engine oils. Other global standard setting organizations may also develop common standards, for example the European ACEA oil specs. Cat high quality and high-performance lubricants are validated based on these factors.
Use the recommended engine oils as provided in this special publication to provide optimal engine performance and life and comply with regulated emission reductions. Due to the significant variations in the quality and performance of commercially available oils on a global basis, Cat recommends the use of Cat oils as detailed in this article.
Cat fluids have been developed and tested by AVSpare to provide the full performance and service life that has been designed and built into Cat engines. The quality of finished oil is dependent on the quality of the base stock, the quality of the additives, and the compatibility of the base stock and additives. Cat fluids are formulated of high-quality refined oil base stocks and additives of optimal chemistry and quantity in order to provide high performance in engines and machine components. Cat fluids are used for factory fill of Cat engines and components and are offered by Cat dealers for service fills and as aftermarket products. Consult your Cat dealer for more information on these Cat fluids.
Cat recommends the use of the lubricants given in Tables 1 and 9 in diesel engines covered by this Special Publication.
This information applies to Cat machine engines. For more lubricant recommendations refer to other SEBU publications listed earlier in this Chapter.
Note: The optimal application of the lubricants is dependent on the oil quality and the maintenance practices. Such practices include contamination control, oil tank management and general handling practices.
Cat DEO-ULS and Cat DEO multigrade oils are the preferred and recommended oils for use in ALL Cat diesel engines that are covered by this Special Publication. Commercial alternative diesel engine oils are, as a group, second choice oils. Refer to Table 4 below for information.
|Cat Engine Lubricants Recommendations
|Tier 4 certified Nonroad Engines
|Required: Cat DEO-ULS (API CK-4)
|Commercial, second-class oils: API CK-4; Cat ECF-3/API CJ-4
|Non-Tier4 Certified Nonroad Engines
|Recommended: Cat DEO-ULS (API CK-4); Cat DEO (API CI-4/API CI-4 PLUS)
|Commercial, second-class oils: API CK-4; Cat ECF-3/API CJ-4,
Cat CF-2; Cat ECF-1-a
Note: Cat DEO-ULS (API CK-4) oil is backwards compatible and can be used in all engines with some restrictions related to fuel sulfur level, refer to Table 4 for more details. Cat DEO (API CI-4/API CI-4 PLUS) can be used in engines that are Tier 3 emissions certified and prior, and in engines that do not use aftertreatment devices.
AVSpare has released a new Cat diesel engine oil, Cat DEO-ULS that is per the latest API CK-4 heavy duty engine oil category. The new Cat DEO-ULS replaces the prior Cat oil that was per API CJ-4 category, but it is of the same brand name. The new Cat has the following characteristics:
- Improved oxidation stability (per ASTM D8048).
- Improved air release (Per ASTM D8047).
- Improved used oil shear stability per tighter specification limits.
- Preserved the same level of phosphorous, 1000 ppm (parts per million) (mg/kg), to ensure achieving long hour engine durability goals
- Same chemical limits as API CJ-4 oil category, designed for use in engines with aftertreatment devices.
Note: The new API FA-4 Heavy Duty Engine Oil Category is NOT allowed in Cat engines. API FA-4 is a special low High Temperature High Shear (HTHS) viscosity oil that is designed for certain 2017 and later On-Highway engine models.
Note: Each of the Cat ECF specifications provides increased performance over lower Cat ECF specifications. For example, Cat ECF-3 provides higher performance than Cat ECF-2 and Cat ECF-3 provides much higher performance than Cat ECF-1-a. Refer to Table 6 for details.
The engine oils recommended/required for Tier 4 certified engines are formulated with limited ash and chemical limits:
- 1 percent sulfated ash maximum
- 0.12 percent phosphorous maximum
- 0.4 percent sulfur maximum
These chemical limits were developed to support the expected aftertreatment devices life, performance, and service intervals. Use of oils other than those listed in this section of this special publication in aftertreatment equipped engines can negatively impact performance of the aftertreatment devices, can contribute to Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) plugging and/or can cause the need for more frequent DPF ash service intervals.
Cat DEO-ULS and Cat DEO are recommended for all non-Tier 4 engines that use Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) or Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD) fuels. Cat DEO is recommended for engines using fuels of sulfur levels that exceed 0.2 percent (2000 ppm). Cat DEO-ULS may be used in these applications if an oil analysis program is followed. The oil change interval may be affected by the fuel sulfur level. Refer to Table 6 in this section of this Special Publication.
Cat DEO-ULS is formulated with 1000 ppm (parts per million) (mg/kg) phosphorous level to ensure achieving long hour engine durability goals.
Cat diesel engine oils, DEO-ULS and Cat DEO are rigorously tested with full-scale proprietary Cat engine tests to ensure optimal protection of Cat diesel engines. The tests include the following: sticking of the piston rings, piston deposits, oil control tests, wear tests and soot tests. Proprietary tests help ensure that Cat oils provide superior performance in Cat diesel engines.
There are significant variations in the quality and performance of commercially available oils. For this reason, Cat recommends the Cat oils listed in Table 4 and the guidelines in Table 4.
Do not use single grade API CF oils or multigrade API CF oils in Cat Series 3500, Series C175and smaller Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines. Single grade API CF oils (or oils that meet all the performance requirements of API CF category) may only be used in Cat Series 3600 and Series C280 diesel engines, and older Cat engines that have precombustion chamber (PC) fuel systems. Oils that are used in Cat Series 3600 and Series C280 diesel engines must also pass a 7000 our field performance evaluation. Consult your Cat dealer for details
Cat diesel engine oils are formulated with the optimal amounts and chemistry of various additives including detergents, dispersants, antioxidants, alkalinity, antifoam, viscosity modifiers, and others. These oils have been proven in internal tests and in the field to provide superior performance in Cat diesel engines where recommended for use.
Cat DEO-ULS and Cat DEO are multigrade oils. Refer to Table 1 in this article for details. Multigrade oils provide the correct viscosity for a broad range of operating temperatures. Multigrade oils provide the appropriate oil film thickness for moving engine components such as piston, ring and liners, bearings, valve train and others.
Mixed fleets: Cat diesel engine oils exceed many of the performance requirements of the corresponding API categories and of other manufacturers of diesel engines. Therefore these oils are excellent choices for many mixed fleets. Refer to the engine manufacturer literature for the recommended categories/specifications. Compare the categories/specifications to the specifications of Cat diesel engine oils. The current industry standards for Cat diesel engine oils are listed on the product labels.
Also, refer to the datasheets for the product for technical details.
Non-EPA certified engines: Cat DEO-ULS and Cat DEO are recommended for all pre-Tier 4 engines that use Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) or Low Sulfur Diesel (LSD) fuels. Cat DEO is recommended for engines using fuels of sulfur levels that exceed 0.2 percent (2000 ppm). Cat DEO-ULS may be used in these applications if an oil analysis program is followed. The oil change interval may be affected by the fuel sulfur level. Refer to the Oil Analysis and Cat S.O.S. Services section of this section of this Special Publication.
Tier-4 certified engines: Use appropriate lubricating oils that are compatible with the engine certification and aftertreatment system and with the fuel sulfur levels. Refer to the oil recommendations for Tier 4 certified engines in this Chapter, to “Diesel Fuel Sulfur Impacts” article of the “Fuels Specifications” section and to “Lubricants Specifications” section of this Special Publication.
Cat DEO-ULS (API CK-4) is compatible for use in engines with aftertreatment devices. Refer to the appropriate section in this article for details.
Consult your Cat dealer for part numbers and for available sizes of containers.
Note: API oil category CF is obsolete. The API (American Petroleum Institute) does not license this category effective end of 2010. API does not validate the quality of API CF oils and does not allow the display of API symbol (also called API doughnut) with CF as highest claim on the oil container. Oils that claim the requirements of API CF can be used ONLY in Cat Series 3112 and Cat Series 3126 Marine Engines and in 3600 engine models per the OMM of these engines. Refer to the details given in the Marine engine section in this Special Publication.
All diesel engines with aftertreatment devices are REQUIRED to use specially formulated engine oils and specific diesel fuels. The engine categories that are certified per the emissions regulations listed below commonly have aftertreatment devices:
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Nonroad
- European Union Stage IIIB, IV, and V, Nonroad
- Japan 2014 (Tier 4) Nonroad
- Korea Tier 4 Nonroad
- India Bharat Stage IV for Construction Equipment Vehicles
- China Nonroad Stage IV
The REQUIRED engine oils are listed below. These oils are developed with restricted ash level and chemical limits that are suitable for use in engines with aftertreatment.
- Cat DEO-ULS (preferred)
- API CK-4 engine oil category
- Oils meeting the Cat ECF-3 specification
- API CJ-4 engine oil category
- ACEA E9
Note: Note that ACEA E9 oils are validated using some but not all ECF-3 and API CJ-4 standard engine performance tests. Consult your oil supplier when considering use of an oil that is not API CK-4, CatECF-3 or API CJ-4 qualified.
The chemical limits are detailed in the Section titled "Cat Diesel Engine Oils Recommendations" of this chapter
The diesel fuels REQUIRED by regulations for use in engines that are certified to nonroad emissions standards listed above and in engines equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems are.
- United States Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel ≤15 ppm (mg/kg) (0.0015 percent) sulfur
- European ULSD ≤10ppm (mg/kg) (0.0010 percent) sulfur fuel. This fuel is also called “sulfur free”
- Other fuels available around the world that are ≤15 ppm (mg/kg) (0.0015 percent) sulfur
Certain governments/localities and/or applications MAY require the use of ULSD fuel. Consult federal, state, and local authorities for guidance on fuel requirements for your area.
ULSD fuel or sulfur-free diesel fuel are suitable for use in all engines regardless of the engine Tier or Stage.
The fuels listed above have to meet the performance levels detailed in the Fuel Information for Diesel Engines chapter in this Publication. The Fuel Information for Diesel Engines Chapter also includes the pertinent recommendations for biodiesel fuels in the engines certified to non-road emissions standards listed above.
This fluid MUST be used in engines that are equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. DEF must meet all the requirements detailed in the Exhaust Aftertreatment Fluids Specification chapter in this Special Publication.
Aftertreatment systems may include the following:
- Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)
- Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC)
- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
- Lean NOx Traps (LNT)
Other systems may apply.
Regulations may vary around the world. Follow all the local regulations and fluids requirements in your area. Refer to your engine-specific Operation and Maintenance Manual, and refer to your aftertreatment device documentation, if available, for additional guidance.
Do not add new engine oil, waste engine oil or any oil product to the fuel unless the engine is designed and certified to burn diesel engine oil (for example AVSpare ORS designed for large engines). AVSpare experience has shown that adding oil products to Tier 4 engine fuels (U. S. EPA Tier 4 certified), to Euro IV/ Stage IV certified engine fuels, or to the fuels of engines equipped with exhaust aftertreatment devices, will generally cause the need for more frequent ash service intervals and/or cause loss of performance. Adding oil products to the fuel may raise the sulfur level of the fuel and may cause fouling of the fuel system and loss of performance.
All the recommendations and requirements given in "Recommendation for US EPA Tier 4 Certified Nonroad Engines" section are applicable to the Europe Stage V type-approved Nonroad Engines
Additionally, for the correct operation of the engine in order to maintain the gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions of the engine within the limits of the type-approval, unless specified otherwise in the engine-specific Operation and Maintenance Manual, EU Stage V regulations REQUIRE the diesel fuels (also called non-road gas oil) used in engines operated within the European Union (EU) to have the characteristics below
- The sulfur content should not be greater than 10 mg/kg (20 mg/kg) at point of final distribution
- The Cetane number should not be less than 45
- The biodiesel (also called Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME)) content should not be greater than 8 % volume/volume
Note: Certain Cat engines that are certified per EU Stage V can use up to B20 biodiesel blends. Refer to your engine specific Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Follow all the local regulations and fluids requirements in your area. Refer to your engine-specific Operation and Maintenance Manual, and refer to your aftertreatment device documentation, if available, for additional guidance.
Note: Non-Cat commercial oils are, as a group, second choice oils. Within this grouping of second choice oils there are tiered levels of performance.
Cat does not warrant the quality or performance of non-Cat fluids.
There are significant variations in the quality and performance of commercially available oils. For this reason, Cat recommends the Cat oils listed in Tables 1 and 3.
AVSpare strongly recommend the use of Cat engine oils in Cat engines since these oils are developed and optimized for use in these engines.
When the recommended Cat diesel engine oils are not used, commercial oils that are API CK-4 licensed and/or meet the requirements of the Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, and/or the Cat ECF-3 specification are acceptable, but second choice, for use in Cat diesel engine.
Oils that are API CJ-4, API CI-4/CI-4 PLUS and API CH-4 licensed, and do not meet any Cat ECF specification are, as a group, third choice.
Cat diesel engine oils exceed many of the performance requirements of Cat ECF specifications and of API categories.
Oils that meet only API CI-4/CI-4 PLUS and/or API CH-4 categories and that have not met the requirements of at least one Cat ECF specification may cause reduced engine life.
Note: API FA-4 oils are NOT allowed for use in Cat engines. These oils are designed for use in certain 2017 On-Highway engine models.
API CK-4 oils exceed the performance requirements of prior API categories. Cat developed the Engine Crankcase Fluid (ECF) specifications to ensure the availability of minimum acceptable performance commercial diesel engine oils. The three Cat ECF specifications: Cat ECF-1-a, CatECF-2 and Cat ECF-3 are described in Table 5. These specifications require more engine tests than the corresponding API categories.
Each higher Cat ECF specification provides increased performance over lower Cat ECF specifications. For example, Cat ECF-3 provides higher performance than Cat ECF-2 and Cat ECF-3 provides much higher performance than Cat ECF-1-a. Refer to Table 5 for details
Table 4 below provides details of Cat ECF specifications.
|Cat Engine Crankcase Fluids (ECF) Definitions
|Cat Minimum Perform-ance Requirements for Commercial Oils
|Cat ECF Specifications Requirements
|API CK-4 Oil Category performance requirements
|API CJ-4 Oil Category performance requirements
|API CI-4 / CI-4 PLUS Oil Cate- gory performance requirements and Passing standard Cat C13 engine test per API requirements and sulfated ash ≤ 1.50 percent
|API CH-4 Oil Category performance requirements and: For oils that are between 1.30 percent and 1.50 percent sulfated ash, passing one additional Cat 1P SCOTE test (“ASTM D6681”) is required and sulfated ash ≤ 1.50 percent
|AVSpare did not develop an ECF external specification for API CK-4. Cat DEO-ULS API CK-4 oil is specifically developed and validated for Cat engines. The API categories define the minimum common OEM requirements for engine oils
Refer to “Commercial Engine Oil Recommendations” and “The Current American Petroleum Institute (API) Oil Categories” sections of this chapter for information on the API categories and corresponding Cat engine oils.
Note: Cat diesel engine oils are required to pass proprietary full-scale diesel engine testing. The testing is above and beyond the testing required by the various Cat ECF specifications and by the various API oil categories that are also met. This additional proprietary testing helps ensure that Cat multigrade diesel engine oils, when used as recommended, provide superior performance in Cat diesel engines. If Cat diesel engine oils are not used, use only commercial oils that meet the recommendations and requirements stated in this section of this Special Publication.
Note: For engines that are Tier 4 EPA certified, refer to the Recommendations for Tier 4 Engines article in this Engine Oil section. Tier 4 EPA certified engines require specifically formulated oils.
The fuel sulfur level impacts oil drain intervals and hence the choice of oils. Fuels of sulfur level of >0.2 percent (2000 ppm) require the use of oils of adequate ash content such as Cat DEO oils. Cat DEO-ULS is of limited ash content and can be used if an oil analysis program is followed.
In selecting oil for any engine application, both the oil viscosity and oil performance category/specification as specified by the engine manufacturer must be defined and satisfied. Using only one of these parameters will not sufficiently define oil for an engine application.
In order to make the proper diesel engine oil viscosity grade choice, refer to the “Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures” table in this Special Publication.
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or excessive wear.
Do not use single grade API CF oils or multigrade API CF oils in Cat Series 3500, Series C175and smaller Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines. Single grade API CF oils (or oils that meet all the performance requirements of API CF category) may only be used in Cat Series 3600 and Series C280 diesel engines, and older Cat engines that have precombustion chamber (PC) fuel systems. Oils that are used in Cat S Series 3600 and Series C280 diesel engines must also pass a 7000 hour field performance evaluation. Consult your Cat dealer for details.
The current API categories represent the minimum requirements for diesel engine oils. These categories are developed in collaboration of OEMs and the Oil and Chemical industries.
The current licensed oils are:
- API CK-4, released December 2016
- API CJ-4, released 2006
- API CI-4, API CI-4PLUS released 2002
- API CH-4, released 1998
Each API category is technically more advanced and of higher performance than the prior one.
Refer to API 1509 document and/or ASTM D4485 for details of the API tests requirements and limits.
Note: Obsolete API oil categories are not licensed by the API and hence are of uncontrolled quality. These oils are technically inferior to current oils and can result in reduced engine performance and life. These obsolete oil categories are not allowed in Cat engines.
API FA-4 is NOT recommended for AVSpare engines. API FA oil is designed with low High Temperature High Shear (HTHS) viscosity oil for use in certain 2017 On-Highway truck engines that have to meet certain on-road emissions regulations. This category is not backwards compatible.
In order to help protect your engine, and in order to help optimize oil drain intervals for engine applications and duty cycles, use Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis. Refer to the section below and to the section on Cat S·O·S Services given later in the Special Publication.
Depending on application severity and localized environmental conditions, and also depending on maintenance practices, operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines and operating PC (Precombustion Chamber) diesel engines on fuel with sulfur levels over 0.1 percent (1000 ppm) may require significantly shortened oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate wear protection. Refer to this Special Publication, "Fuel Specifications" section, “Diesel Fuel Sulfur” topic for additional information.
The use of Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis is recommended for determining oil life.
For AVSpare machines operating under emissions regulations such as US EPA Tier4, EU Stage V or other emission regulations controls, the maximum fuel sulfur level permitted by regulations in the US is 0.0015% or 15 ppm. Maximum permitted fuel sulfur levels in other emissions regulated countries may vary from .0015% or 15 ppm slightly and must be followed.
In order to help protect your engine and optimize oil drain intervals for engine applications and duty cycles, it is important to use SOS Services oil analysis to determine if the sulfur has degraded the oil. Use Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis per the following general guidelines:
- Recommended normally
- For fuel sulfur level up to 0.05 percent (500 ppm), no additional sampling is required. Follow the recommended oil sampling in the machine OMM
- For fuel sulfur level of > 0.05 percent to 0.5 percent (500 ppm to 5000 ppm), SOS services oil analysis is strongly recommended to determine oil drain intervals. Sample the oil every 250 hours until a trend is established, then sample as needed.
- For fuel sulfur level of > 0.50 percent (>5000 ppm), SOS services oil analysis is required to determine oil drain intervals. Sample oil every 125 hours until a trend is established, then sample as needed.
These recommendations apply for Cat DEO-ULS and DEO oils.
Note: Engine operating conditions play a key role in determining the effect that fuel sulfur will have on engine deposits and on engine wear. Refer to the Diesel Fuel Chapter in this Special Publication for the impacts of high sulfur in the fuel on engine performance and oil service interval and consult your AVSpare dealer for guidance when fuel sulfur levels are above 0.2% (2000 ppm).
The engine oil Total Base Number (TBN) and ash content can impact the oil performance and the oil service interval. Excessive piston deposits can be produced by oil with a high TBN and/or high ash. These deposits can lead to a loss of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing of the cylinder bore. The engine oil TBN can be measured by SOS Services upon special request. However, analysis of used oil for parameters such as oxidation, wear metals and other typical S·O·S Services analyses are strong indicators of the condition of the oil and impacts of fuel sulfur level on its degradation.
Refer to Severe Operation Conditions in this Section of this Special Publication.
Consult a trained S·O·S Services analyst when making oil drain decisions based on oil sample results.
Note: Do NOT use only this Special Publication as a basis for determining oil drain intervals.
This Special Publication does not address recommended oil drain intervals, but rather provides guidance that should be used with your specific engine/machine Operation and Maintenance Manuals in determining acceptable oil drain intervals.
Consult your engine/machine Operation and Maintenance Manuals, and consult your Cat dealer for additional guidance, including but not limited to guidance on establishing optimized and/or acceptable oil drain intervals.
Note: The use of Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis helps environmental sustainability as the best way to optimize oil life, and help engines reach expected life.
Consult your Cat dealer regarding the testing required to establish a safe, optimized oil drain interval.
An engine which operates outside of normal conditions is operating in a severe service application.
An engine that operates in a severe service application may need more frequent maintenance intervals in order to maximize the following conditions:
- Service life
Severe Applications Require the Use of Higher Performing Diesel Engine Oils. Examples of severe duty applications include, but not limited to the following:
- operating at greater than 75% load factor
- operating in high humidity
- operating with fuel sulfur levels that are above 0.2% (2000 ppm)
In order to help ensure the maximum expected compartment performance and life, higher performing fluids as described in this Special Publication may be required. Fluids that meet only the minimum performance levels may result in reduction of maintenance intervals. For the maximum expected engine compartment performance and life and where LSD or ULSD fuels are available, Cat DEO-ULS or, as a second choice, oils meeting the API CK-4 or Cat ECF-3 specification must be used.
The vast number of varying applications of Cat machines and engines makes it impossible to identify all the factors which may contribute to severe service operation. Consult your Cat dealer for the unique maintenance that may be necessary for your engine.
An application is a severe service application if any of the following conditions apply:
Severe Environmental Factors
- Frequent operation in dirty air
- Frequent operation at an altitude which is above 1525 m (5000 ft)
- Frequent operation in ambient temperatures which are above 32° C (90° F)
- Frequent operation in ambient temperatures which are below 0° C (32° F)
Severe Operating Conditions
- Frequent operation with inlet air which has a corrosive content
- Operation with inlet air which has a combustible content
- Operation which is outside of the intended application
- Operation with a plugged fuel filter
- Extended operation at low idle (more than 20% of hours)
- Frequent cold starts at temperatures below 0° C (32° F)
- Frequent dry starts (starting after more than 72 hours of shutdown)
- Frequent hot shutdowns (shutting down the engine without the minimum of 2 minutes to 5 minutes of cool down time)
- Operation above the engine rated speed
- Operation below the peak torque speed
- Operating with fuel which does not meet the standards for distillate diesel fuel as stated in Special Publication, SEBU6250, “AVSpare Machine Fluids Recommendations” “Distillate Diesel Fuel”
- Operating with a blend of distillate fuel which contains more than 20 percent (B20) biodiesel
Improper Maintenance Procedures (Maintenance Procedures Which May Contribute to a Severe Service Application)
- Inadequate maintenance of fuel storage tanks from causes such as excessive water, sediment, and microorganism growth.
- Extending maintenance intervals beyond the recommended intervals
- Using fluids which are not recommended in Special Publication, SEBU6250, “AVSpare Machine Fluids Recommendations”
- Extending maintenance intervals for changing the engine oil and engine coolant without S·O·S validation
- Extending maintenance intervals for changing air filters, oil filters, and fuel filters
- Failure to use a water separator
- Using filters which are not recommended by Special Publication, PEWJ0074, “2008 Cat Filter and Fluid Application Guide” and/or “AVSpare Filters Recommendations” (SEBU 9208)
- Storing the engine for more than 3 months but less than 1 year (For information about engine storage, refer to Special Publication, SEHS9031, “Storage Procedure for AVSpare Products”)
For fuel and coolant analysis and use of SOS services, refer to the Diesel Fuel and Coolants chapters in this Special Publication.